How Important was Piety in the Reign of Louis IX?

 There is no reason to believe that the piety of Louis IX was not deep and sincere; indeed a confessor revealed that at one point in his life Louis considered abdication in favour of joining a monastery.[1] This being said, historians such as Jean Richard and Margaret Labarge have raised questions whether the institutional piety … Continue reading How Important was Piety in the Reign of Louis IX?

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Was Frederick Barbarossa a Failure?

Upon his accession to the throne in 1152, Frederick Barbarossa became the leader of an empire which had fallen from grace thanks to incidents such as the Investiture Contest and was weakened by power struggles between the Welf and the Hohenstaufen families since the end of the Staufen line in 1125. Frederick’s main aim was … Continue reading Was Frederick Barbarossa a Failure?

Is it better to speak of ‘fall’ or ‘transformation’ when discussing the shift from Roman to Anglo-Saxon Britain?

The date usually given as the final end of the Roman Empire in Britain is 410, as this is the date when Rome became incapable of sending troops to Britain for defence against Pictish attacks.[1] Examining history of this time period can be a daunting endeavour. There is little written record between approximately 400 and … Continue reading Is it better to speak of ‘fall’ or ‘transformation’ when discussing the shift from Roman to Anglo-Saxon Britain?

How was masculinity conferred and conveyed in the sixteenth century?

From his wide stance, to his beard, to his codpiece, Henry VIII as portrayed in Hans Holbein’s Portrait of Henry VIII is the epitome of masculinity.[1] It is widely regarded that the commission of this portrait was an attempt by Henry VIII to reaffirm his masculinity after the fiasco involving Anne Boleyn.[2] In early modern … Continue reading How was masculinity conferred and conveyed in the sixteenth century?

To what extent was England protestant by 1553?

  1553 was the last year of the reign of the devoutly Protestant Edward VI. Though the Church of England had been separate to the Catholic Church in Rome since 1534, many of the practices in the early Church of England still very much resembled catholic practices. This essay attempts to discern to what extent … Continue reading To what extent was England protestant by 1553?

To what extent did the actions and policies of Louis XVI cause the outbreak, and affect the course, of the French Revolution until 1793?

In the years leading up to 1789, King Louis XVI enacted various measures to prevent the establishment of the National Assembly in June 1789 at the Estates General, the establishment of a constitution in September 1791, the abolishment of the monarchy in 1792 and Louis' eventual execution in 1793. Several errors in judgment made this … Continue reading To what extent did the actions and policies of Louis XVI cause the outbreak, and affect the course, of the French Revolution until 1793?

Assess the relative importance of the roles played by Mazzini and Cavour in the unification of Italy.

From the fall of the Roman Empire until the 19th century, Italy was a unified nation. After the 1815 Congress of Vienna, for certain individuals decided this should no longer be so. One such individual was Giuseppe Mazzini, often considered the father of Italian nationalism. Another figure who was instrumental in the unification of Italy, … Continue reading Assess the relative importance of the roles played by Mazzini and Cavour in the unification of Italy.