How Important was Piety in the Reign of Louis IX?

 There is no reason to believe that the piety of Louis IX was not deep and sincere; indeed a confessor revealed that at one point in his life Louis considered abdication in favour of joining a monastery.[1] This being said, historians such as Jean Richard and Margaret Labarge have raised questions whether the institutional piety... Continue Reading →


Was Frederick Barbarossa a Failure?

Upon his accession to the throne in 1152, Frederick Barbarossa became the leader of an empire which had fallen from grace thanks to incidents such as the Investiture Contest and was weakened by power struggles between the Welf and the Hohenstaufen families since the end of the Staufen line in 1125. Frederick’s main aim was... Continue Reading →

To what extent did the actions and policies of Louis XVI cause the outbreak, and affect the course, of the French Revolution until 1793?

In the years leading up to 1789, King Louis XVI enacted various measures to prevent the establishment of the National Assembly in June 1789 at the Estates General, the establishment of a constitution in September 1791, the abolishment of the monarchy in 1792 and Louis' eventual execution in 1793. Several errors in judgment made this... Continue Reading →

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