How was masculinity conferred and conveyed in the sixteenth century?

From his wide stance, to his beard, to his codpiece, Henry VIII as portrayed in Hans Holbein’s Portrait of Henry VIII is the epitome of masculinity.[1] It is widely regarded that the commission of this portrait was an attempt by Henry VIII to reaffirm his masculinity after the fiasco involving Anne Boleyn.[2] In early modern … Continue reading How was masculinity conferred and conveyed in the sixteenth century?

Assess the relative importance of the roles played by Mazzini and Cavour in the unification of Italy.

From the fall of the Roman Empire until the 19th century, Italy was a unified nation. After the 1815 Congress of Vienna, for certain individuals decided this should no longer be so. One such individual was Giuseppe Mazzini, often considered the father of Italian nationalism. Another figure who was instrumental in the unification of Italy, … Continue reading Assess the relative importance of the roles played by Mazzini and Cavour in the unification of Italy.

Compare and Contrast the Causes and Results of the Chinese and Spanish Civil Wars

The causes of the Chinese and Spanish Civil Wars were similar in that both involved polarisation which precipitated the collapse of a monarchic system of government, which in turn succeeded in polarising political ideologies. They were different in the speed with which these factors brought about civil war, and that China, unlike Spain, was ushered … Continue reading Compare and Contrast the Causes and Results of the Chinese and Spanish Civil Wars